Hijab by Country

head scarf

The 1983 penal code prescribed punishment of 74 lashes for women appearing in public with out Islamic hijab (hijab shar’ee), leaving the definition of correct hijab ambiguous. The similar period witnessed tensions around the definition of proper hijab, which sometimes resulted in vigilante harassment of girls who have been perceived to put on improper clothing.

In Islamic scripture

The veil-cum-turban of the Tuareg tribes of North Africa is a sign of maturity. When a boy turns into a person, the fabric is wound around his face and head till only his eyes are seen. As Islam reached different lands, regional practices, including the covering of the faces of girls, were adopted by the early Muslims.

Pre-Islamic use of the face veil

In Nigeria a head tie is known as a gele — that’s the word used by the Yoruba, one of the nation’s many ethnic teams. But the sporting of head wraps is conventional for all Nigerians and indeed for most African cultures. An artfully folded gele is a part of everyday put on and de rigueur for special occasions like weddings. On the Swahili Coast, turbans were incessantly worn by the ruling Omani Sultans of Zanzibar and their retinue. Much of Armenia’s traditions and cultures replicate Middle Eastern origins.

Ghabanah is the heritage uniform headwear for merchants and the general community categories of the prestigious and center-class, with the exception of religious scholars who have had their particular turbans distinctiveness predominately white. The Hijazi turbans with completely different shapes are the extension of the turban of Islamic prophet Muhammad who lived in Mecca and Madinah. There are several types of Ghabanah, perhaps essentially the most well-known is the yellow (Halabi), that made in Aleppo, that characterized by completely different inscriptions, and wrapped on a dome-like hollow taqiyah or a Turkish fez or kalpak cap.

The carrying of the turban is obligatory for all members of Khalsa (Initiated Sikhs). The Rajastani turban can also be commonly called the pagari (in the West, many Sikhs who put on pagri are generally mistaken for Muslims or Arabs.). They are used extra extensively here than elsewhere within the Muslim world, and are worn in a wide range of types and hues. In the country’s south-east, turbans are wrapped loosely and largely, whereas in Kabul the garment tends to be smaller and tighter. In conventional Afghan society, a related piece of extra fabric called a patu serves practical purposes, such as for wrapping oneself towards the cold, to sit down on, to tie up an animal or to hold water in the cap.

His opponents throughout the Saudi institution ensured that his contract with the college was allowed to lapse without renewal. When veiling was discussed in early Islamic jurisprudence beyond the context of prayer, it was typically considered an “problem of social status and bodily security”. Later, in the course of the medieval period, Islamic jurists began to commit more consideration to the notion of awra (intimate elements) and the question of whether women should cover their faces. The majority opinion which emerged during that time, predominant amongst Maliki and Hanafi jurists, held that women ought to cover every thing except their faces in public.

Unmarried or younger girls, nonetheless, They put on hijab, and the jiilbab can be commonly worn. Although headscarves are permitted in government establishments, public servants are prohibited from wearing the full-facial veil or niqab. A judgment from the then–Supreme Court of Malaysia in 1994 cites that the niqab, or purdah, “has nothing to do with (a lady’s) constitutional proper to profess and practise her Muslim faith”, as a result of Islam doesn’t make it compulsory to cowl the face. (The word is used with that that means in other contexts, e.g. tudung saji, a dish cover for meals.) Muslim women could freely select whether or not or to not put on the scarf. The exception is when visiting a mosque, the place the tudung have to be worn; this requirement additionally consists of non-Muslims.

Men who veil

The concern of Islamic gown is linked with issues of immigration and the place of Islam in Western Europe. Hilda Ogden, well-liked character from the UK soap opera Coronation Street portrayed by Jean Alexander, grew to become well-known all through the nation for combining a headband with hair curlers. So famous was she that, in 1982, she got here fourth behind the Queen Mother, Queen Elizabeth II, and Diana, Princess of Wales in a poll of the most recognisable women in Britain. Until the latter 20th century, headscarves have been generally worn by ladies in lots of components of the Southwestern Asia, Europe, North Africa, and the Americas, in addition to some other elements of the world. In recent decades, headscarves, like hats, have fallen out of favor in Western tradition.

The obligation of a woman to wear a burqa relies on her age, as Moazam, one of my key informants, explained to me; a woman with grown-up children has not necessarily to wear a burqa. Young, single girls or younger, married girls of their first years of marriage, nonetheless, are obliged to wear it. In this example a husband usually decides if his spouse ought to continue to put on a burqa after marriage or not. In Nizamuddin Basti ladies normally started to put on a burqa when they have been around sixteen years old and have become fecund.


  • Some girls determine to wear something colloquially generally known as the “sports activities hijab”.
  • In another Pew Research Center poll , 36% of Muslim American girls reported wearing hijab each time they have been in public, with a further 24% saying they put on it most or a few of the time, whereas forty% stated they by no means wore the headcover.
  • In 2017, the European Court of Justice dominated that firms had been allowed to bar workers from sporting visible non secular symbols, together with the hijab.
  • These turbans are made with many ft of fabric which are wrapped round a cap and are mostly made with white cloth.
  • However, ladies more strongly assist ladies’s right to decide on the way to dress.
  • You see loads of bloggers and celebrities rocking daring head wraps not only for the style, but additionally for the functionality.

The Keffiyeh is usually used by Muslim men, as for instance Yasser Arafat who adopted a black and white fishnet-patterned keffiyeh as a trademark. The most seen type of hijab is the top overlaying that many Muslim women put on.

Though not frequent in daily attire, turbans are generally worn by men ceremonially (typically with beards), as a logo of national identity throughout celebrations and festivals. However, earlier than Armenia grew to become a Christian nation, turbans have been a common part of the every day attire, simply as in different Middle Eastern countries. The Baloch persons are famous for their giant turbans that are worn with both ends hanging from the edges or as a loop that rests above the chest. These turbans are made with many ft of fabric which are wrapped round a cap and are principally made with white material.

Most men lined their heads with both a scarf (just like a wrapped keffiyeh, “a form of turban”) or a fez. Turbans have been worn by Cypriot men since ancient times and were recorded by Herodotus, through the Persian rule of the island, to show their “oriental” customs compared to Greeks.

In September 2011, Australia’s most populous state, New South Wales, passed the Identification Legislation Amendment Act 2011 to require a person to take away a face overlaying if asked by a state official. The legislation is viewed as a response to a courtroom case of 2011 the place a lady in Sydney was convicted of falsely claiming that a visitors policeman had tried to remove her niqab. The full-face veil was banned in May 2015 in public places in Congo-Brazzaville to “counter terrorism”, though there has not been an Islamist attack in the nation. In February 2011, Hamas banned the styling of girls’s hair, continuing its policy of enforcing Sharia upon women’s clothes.

Unofficial pressure to wear hijab

There are not any legal guidelines requiring the sporting of headscarves nor any banning such from any public institution. However, the usage of the headscarf is generally prevalent among the lower and lower center courses.


Ali et al. examine discovered a relationship between the discrimination Muslims face at work and their job satisfaction. In other words, the discrimination Muslim ladies face at work is related to their total feeling of contentment of their jobs, particularly compared to other religious groups. The discrimination Muslim ladies face goes beyond affecting their work expertise, it additionally interferes with their choice to uphold religious obligations.

Wearing the burqa has not been allowed in French public colleges since 2004 when it was judged to be a spiritual image just like the Christian cross. This ruling was the applying of a longtime 1905 regulation that prohibits students and employees from wearing any clearly visible non secular symbols. The law pertains to the time the place the secular French state took over control of most colleges from the Catholic Church.

What is taken into account modest or daring in one society may not be considered so in one other. It is essential, they are saying, for believers to wear clothes that communicates modesty and reserve. The hadith sources specify the main points of hijab (Islamic rules of gown) for women and men, exegesis of the Qur’anic verses narrated by sahabah, and are a major supply which students used to derive their rulings. ‎) was used to indicate a headscarf, and ḥijāb was used to denote a partition, a curtain, or was used usually for the Islamic rules of modesty and dress for both men and women. It’s not simply working-class tailors who are part of the fashion scene.

The proposal was passed without dissent, and was then also handed by the Senate. BBC News estimates that “Only around 30 women wear this sort of veil in Belgium, out of a Muslim population of round half a million.” The ban got here into impact in Belgium in July 2011. On 11 July 2017 the ban in Belgium was upheld by the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) after having been challenged by two Muslim girls who claimed their rights had been infringed. The chadaree has been worn by Pashtun girls since pre-Islamic occasions and was historically seen as a mark of respectability. Before the Taliban took energy in Afghanistan, the chadaree was not often worn in cities.

In 2010, Australian Liberal Senator Cory Bernardi called for the burqa to be banned in Australia, branding it “un-Australian”. The ban did not go ahead but the debate about the burqa continues. In December 2019, the municipality of Skurup banned Islamic veils in educational institutions. As of August 2019, Dutch girls are believed to wear a burqa or niqab.

The survey found “no significant distinction” in the preferences between surveyed women and men, besides in Pakistan, where more men favored conservative girls’s costume. However, girls more strongly support women’s proper to choose tips on how to dress. People with college education are much less conservative of their alternative than these without one, and extra supportive of women’s right to resolve their costume fashion, except in Saudi Arabia. In Sudan, large white headdresses connote excessive social standing.[quotation wanted] In Pakistan the cap known as a topi.

Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy, Grand Imam of al-Azhar, issued a fatwa in October 2009 arguing that veiling of the face just isn’t required underneath Islam. He had reportedly requested a scholar to take off her niqab when he spotted her in a classroom, and he advised her that the niqab is a cultural custom without Islamic significance. It is extensively believed that the hijab is changing into extra of a trend statement than a religious one in Egypt, with many Egyptian ladies, influenced by social peer stress, sporting colorful, stylish head scarves along with western fashion clothing. Government bans on wearing the niqab on school campuses at the University of Cairo and during university exams in 2009 were overturned later. Minister Hany Mahfouz Helal met protests by some human rights and Islamist teams.